OIE recognizes Netherlands as an aquaculture disease free country – understandably as tropical shrimp diseases cannot survive in the colder waters and all facilities holding aquaculture species are run bio-securely.
Would be good though to state the bio-security benefits – otherwise left understated.
Be aware that California squid cannot be Specific Pathogen Free (SPF) – this is marketing.
It has long been known that unilateral eyestalk ablation is not necessary and that natural insemination and fecundity can be obtained with diet and photoperiod control.
It’s not anecdotal but just that researchers are always playing catch up to industry knowledge and thus giving sustenance to existing practices.
Fertilization and spawning rates are initially lower but resultant generations adapt well.
To get comparable volume production a doubling of females is an obvious initial option in a maturation tank.
Other system (vannamei in SE Asia) keep males and females seperate – with ripe females put in to all male tanks to fertilise them – then removed to spawning tanks.
Lots of thing out there that have already been done – with many hatchery production teams not having the luxury, time or inclination to go academic. The ownership and development is in the industry production number.
Work already done that is now being validated and published by others.
After years involved in supporting shrimp exports and 12 years after the introduction of the exotic vannamei species the MPEDA in India go upstream into quarantining imports.
Good move – with Black Tiger also a possibility to import.
Now here is the biz – BT are closed thelycum and hold fertilized eggs inside theire bodies unlike vannamei whose eggs get fertilized on leaving the body.
In West Africa plenty of gravid females and many cannot spawn because areas where they want to spawn tend to have very high total dissolved solids.
SO the females hold back spawning and just grow while searching for ideal place to spawn. In this same fashion gravid BT females could enter and be held in a quarantine situation (but with a high TDS – artificial fine silt works) until an MPEDA (or OIE) approval is obtained against required pathogens.
Then gravid BT released into clear water (still controlled) indoor spawning tanks in separate bio-securely run facility (to exclude entry of disease).
Of course same could happen in US or with any other origin/species.