Facts and myths…..
About facts and myths…..’The original shrimp stock was obtained using rigorous screening of captured wild shrimp for selection of individuals naturally free of major shrimp pathogens.”
Original shrimp stock were cultured PLs and supplied by Prawnmaster to Dr Lightner at APL, Arizona in 1989 from his facility in Mexico.
They were 16,000 PL’s spawned from artificially inseminated vannamei in Mexico and passed through a proprietary natural selection program on a special diet and an extremely low survival rate.
These were declared SPF by APL (personal communications and visits) and sent to OI in Hawaii. The female Griselda became famous.
There is only one country in the world that had the stranglehold on live global shrimp movements under the UN OIE and that is the USA. A country where Pacific vannamei is not even endemic.
This has led to the manipulation of trade and the promotion of US interests in specific shrimp pathogen programs. USA is not even a shrimp producer – even though that was stated aim or the US NMFS Shrimp Consortium’s program back in the late 1980’s.
Ecuador was the first country that US targeted for its genetics program and it failed miserably. Ecuador has since gone on to develop a more sensible program – with increased resulting production – whereas USA has still zero real shrimp farming.
Now that ET building blocks to life have been found
There is nothing to fear but fear itself.
Impossible to make world SPF.
Which is why initially it failed with vannamei shrimp and was re-branded shrimp high health for the commodity mass market.
We all know the development of the US led shrimp SPF and the French led shrimp SPR (plus other sub derivatives up to APE) programs.
SPF (type of quaranteen and self isolation) is all about survival. More elitist but grow out isolated in climate controlled and genetically manipulated environments.
SPR is about developing resistance rather than exclusion.
In an ideal world bio-security means living in a bubble. That is fine and is the premise of the SPF term.
Current RAS shrimp grow out technologies however rely on exclusion biosecurity measures. Not completely living in a bubble at all.
Even in current RAS water effluents are allowed if abide to regulatory standards in location. Air effluent, as systems are run on positive air pressure (air/oxygen bubbled into water), are not controlled.
So now lets take a look from an external perspective NIMBY viewpoint…..positive pressure means that there seems to be some air escaping….and standards for water to waste means some discharge allowed. Hang on though…not really biosecure at all – maybe for protecting the crop but not for the environment where the facility is placed. Especially if growing exotics.
Containment RAS systems are such that there are no wastes at all. No water and no air. Nothing to the external environment except for the harvested protein……and even then that needs to be bio-securely delivered and cooked prior to eating.
Containment RAS therefore is a barrier to entry and exits technology whereas exclusion RAS technology (the current state of play) is just a barrier to entries.
Is containment RAS a possibility in shrimp growout?
What benefits are there? Better biosecurity for the environment? Diseases become secondary to growth? Other shrimp apart from vannamei become of interest?